Author Archives: Fera Asmarita


Canada is a country in North America that extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east, to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. It is bordered by the United States of America both to the south and to the west (Alaska). The geography of Canada is mostly plains with mountains in the west. By area, Canada is the second largest country in the world after Rusia but has a low population density, with approximately 31 million inhabitants (Canadians). The independence day of Canada is the 1st July 1867. Canada consists of ten provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan), three territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon). It can be divided into five areas:
1. The East (also called the Atlantic region) includes the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.
2. The Central region includes the provinces of Quebec and Ontario.
3. The Prairies include Manitoba, Saskatchewan and some parts of Alberta.
4. The West includes Alberta and British Columbia.
5. The North is made up of the three territories of Nunavut, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories.
As of 2001, 66% of Canadians are of European descent (mostly British and French origins), 26% are of mixed backgrounds, and 6% are of solely non-European descent, mostly from Asia. Only 2% of the population is formed by the native population. Canada’s two official languages are French and English; French is mostly spoken in Quebec, Ontario, and New Brunswick. English (official) 58.8%, French (official) 21.6%, other 19.6%. Most Canadians are Christians, Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16%.
The government system is a parliamentary democracy, a federation and a constitutional monarchy. This means that the Queen or King of Canada is the head of state, while the Prime Minister is the head of government. Canada has a market economic system in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. Canada is a member of the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Canada has lots of natural resources. Its large amounts of fish have been used for centuries for food and money. Hydroelectric power (electricity by water) is abundant because of Canada’s many rivers. Forests of the west are used for wood. Besides these renewable resources, Canada has metal ores and oil deposits. Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary.
Many people from other parts of the world think of Canada as a very cold and snowy place. While it is true that much of Canada is very far north, most Canadians live in the southern parts, where the weather is much milder. Nearly two Canadians in three live less than 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the U.S. border. In some cities the temperature can get very cold in the winter, especially in the inland. Warm air systems moving in from the Pacific Ocean bring more rain than snow to the Pacific coast, while colder temperatures further inland do result in snow. Most of Canada can get quite hot in the summer, often over 30 degrees Celsius. Canadians are known to play winter sports such as ice hockey and skiing and snowboarding, and also enjoy many summer sports and games.

Canada is widely known as a sports-loving country. The Canadian people always like to do some physical activity to avoid obesity and most importantly, to cope with the cold environment. Canada is a generous country where people all of the world are settled in here and share their own sports and culture with the native Canadians. Thus Canada has become a country of variety of games and sports. The country have also showed their dominance in world sports as well as in Olympic games. It is already known that, winter sports in Canada are very much popular all over the world.
Canada is a leading sport nation. How sport is practiced in Canada today is influenced by a number of factors, including the seasons, geographic and social diversity. For example, lacrosse, the national summer sport, has been played by Aboriginal peoples for close to a thousand years. Hockey, the national winter sport, was invented in Canada in the 1800s.


ice hockey
Hockey is the sport most played by Canadians, with 1.65 million participants. Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent’s net to score points. Ice hockey teams usually consist of four lines of three forwards, three pairs of defencemen, and two goaltenders. Normally, each team has five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Teams normally have a goaltender as their sixth on-ice player, whose job is to prevent the puck from entering the goal. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game enjoys immense popularity.


Canadian footbal
Canadian football is a form of gridiron football played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (101 m) long and 65 yards (59 m) wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team’s scoring area (end zone). It should be noted that when Canadians speak of “football,” they are referring to the rugby-inspired game sometimes known as “American Football” or “Gridiron”. Rugby football in Canada originated in the early 1860s, and over time, the game known as Canadian football developed.


Lacrosse is a contact team sport played between two teams using a small rubber ball (62.8-64.77 mm, 140-147 g) and a long-handled stick called Lacrosse or lacrosse stick. It is often considered as a rough sport, although injuries are less frequent than in American football and other contact sports. The head of the lacrosse stick is strung with loose mesh designed to catch and hold the lacrosse ball. Offensively, the objective of the game is to score by shooting the ball into an opponent’s goal, using the lacrosse stick to catch, cradle, and pass the ball to do so. Defensively, the objective is to keep the opposing team from scoring and to gain the ball through the use of stick checking and body contact or positioning.


Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls, boules and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones, also called rocks, across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice. Each team has eight stones. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game; points are scored for the stones resting closest to the centre of the house at the conclusion of each end, which is completed when both teams have thrown all of their stones. A game usually consists of eight or ten ends.


Soccer has gained popularity in Canada over many years. Although, soccer in Canada was played under a variety of rules, the main concept of soccer was there. The first soccer game had taken place in Toronto in October 1876 between two local clubs. The game has not achieved as much popularity as in Europe, but the Canadian Women soccer team has succeeded numerous times in international level. The team qualified for the 2012 London summer Olympics and performed remarkably well throughout the tournament. They met favourite United States in the Semi-final and lost the game by 4-3 in the overtime. But, the American win came through some controversial decisions against Canada. However, Canada secured the third place with Bronze medal, defeating France by 1-0. Canada is organizing the 2015 FIFA Women’s World cup and the tournament is about to finish this month. Soccer ranks 3rd in the list of top 10 most popular sports in Canada.


Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each who take turns batting and fielding. The offense attempts to score runs by hitting a ball that is thrown by the pitcher with a bat swung by the batter, then running counter-clockwise around a series of four bases: first, second, third, and home plate. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases and returns to home plate.
Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the batting team who reaches a base safely can later attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates’ turns batting, such as on a hit or by other means. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the fielding team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the visiting team, constitutes an inning. A game comprises nine innings, and the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball is the only major team sport in America with no game clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning.


Originally, Basketball is a team sport, which is invented by a Canadian, James Naismith in 1891. He invented the sport considering it’s indoor recreational value. He was trying to find a safer sport, which requires skill, not power to throw ball. Now, basketball has progressed to a highly skilled sport all over the world. It is documented that, basketball was played in Canada prior to 1900. The official governing body for basketball in Canada is named “Basketball Canada”, which was formed in 1928. A new era of Canadian basketball had begun in 1994, when NBA of United States awarded franchises to 2 Canadian teams, the Toronto Raptors and Vancouver Grizzlies. Professional basketball came to Canada through that initiatives for the first time.

The Rest
It’s hard to find a sport that’s not played at least somewhere in Canada, and almost all of them have their own uniquely Canadian heroes — though their profiles may be decidedly lower than some of the folks mentioned above.
Ultimate Fighting has come to enjoy considerable popularity in Canada in recent years, in large part due to the successes of French-Canadian star fighter, Georges St. Pierre (b. 1981), who has definitely done a lot to dispel the “polite Canadian” stereotype.
Skating has long been both a casual pastime and competitive sport in Canada, and the two most decorated Canadian Olympians of all time, Clara Hughes (b. 1972) and Cindy Klassen (b. 1979), are both speed skaters.
Skiing, of both the cross-country and downhill variety, is one of Canada’s major entertainment industries, and every year thousands of tourists join locals to participate in the long Canadian ski season, which usually lasts from November to April. The rocky mountain provinces of British Columbia and Alberta are home to some of the world’s largest and most glamorous ski resorts, with a few smaller-scale ones in Quebec as well.
Other sports that have some degree of mainstream popularity in modern Canada include golf, volleyball, tennis, rugby, boxing, swimming, wrestling, track and field, rowing, mountain climbing, cycling and bowling. Most major Canadian cities will have some manner of organized league for all of them.



• There are a number of sports that are played in Canada, both individually and with teams, with some of the most popular being golf, ice hockey, swimming, basketball and baseball. Hockey is known as the national sport of Canada. Other popular sports played in Canada include soccer, volleyball, tennis, cycling, skiing and curling
• Because of the nation’s climate and terrain, winter sports are extremely popular in Canada. Canadian men tend to gravitate to sports like ice hockey, baseball and golf while women enjoy sports like volleyball, swimming, golf and soccer. The most popular spectator sports in Canada include ice hockey, Canadian football, baseball and soccer. Canada often does well during the Winter Olympic Games and actually finished as the top medal-winning country at the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver.


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Posted by on October 9, 2015 in ARTIKEL


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2014 in review

Asisten statistik menyiapkan laporan tahunan 2014 untuk blog ini.

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Aula konser di Sydney Opera House menampung 2.700 orang. Blog ini telah dilihat sekitar 32.000 kali di 2014. Jika itu adalah konser di Sydney Opera House, dibutuhkan sekitar 12 penampilan terlaris bagi orang sebanyak itu untuk menontonnya.

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Posted by on January 1, 2015 in uncategories


Poetry Analysis_The Most Beautiful Flower

The Most Beautiful Flower
By Cheryl L. Costello-Forshey

The park bench was deserted as I sat down to read
Beneath the long, straggly branches of an old willow tree.
Disillusioned by life with good reason to frown,
For the world was intent on dragging me down.
And if that weren’t enough to ruin my day,
A young boy out of breath approached me, all tired from play.
He stood right before me with his head tilted down
And said with great excitement, “Look what I found!”

In his hand was a flower, and what a pitiful sight,
With its petals all worn – not enough rain, or too little light.
Wanting him to take his dead flower and go off to play,
I faked a small smile and then shifted away.
But instead of retreating he sat next to my side
And placed the flower to his nose and declared with overacted surprise,
“It sure smells pretty and it’s beautiful, too.
“That’s why I picked it; here, it’s for you.”

The weed before me was dying or dead.
Not vibrant of colors, orange, yellow or red.
But I knew I must take it, or he might never leave.
So I reached for the flower, and replied, “Just what I need.”
But instead of him placing the flower in my hand,
He held it midair without reason or plan.
It was then that I noticed for the very first time
That weed-toting boy could not see: he was blind.

I heard my voice quiver, tears shone in the sun
As I thanked him for picking the very best one.
“You’re welcome,” he smiled, and then ran off to play,
Unaware of the impact he’d had on my day.
I sat there and wondered how he managed to see
A self-pitying woman beneath an old willow tree.
How did he know of my self-indulged plight?
Perhaps from his heart, he’d been blessed with true sight.
Through the eyes of a blind child, at last I could see
The problem was not with the world; the problem was me.
And for all of those times I myself had been blind,
I vowed to see the beauty in life, and appreciate every second that’s mine.
And then I held that wilted flower up to my nose
And breathed in the fragrance of a beautiful rose
And smiled as I watched that young boy, another weed in his hand
About to change the life of an unsuspecting old man.

Analysis of The Most Beautiful Flower poem by Cheryl L. Costello-Forshey


This Cheryl L. Costello-Forshey’s poetry is written in five eight-line stanzas (octaves) that followed rhyming pattern of abccddcc for the first stanza,  aabbccdd for the second stanza, aabaccdc for the third stanza,  aabbccdd for the fourth stanza,  aabbccbb for the last stanza. So, the rhyme scheme of this poem is irregular, it is uncommon rhyme scheme.  It was hard to decide the poetic feet because the poet used free verse style. So, there is no pattern in rhyme. Each line of this poem contains varying numbers of types of poetic feet. There are also:

  • Assonance

It can be found at the first stanza in line 3 and 4

Disillusioned by life with good reason to frown,

For the world was intent on dragging me down.

In line 9 and 10 of the third stanza

In his hand was a flower, and what a pitiful sight,

With its petals all worn – not enough rain, or too little light.

in line 39 and 40 of the last stanza

And smiled as I watched that young boy, another weed in his hand
About to change the life of an unsuspecting old man.

  • Run on line

For example: in line 26 and 27

But instead of him placing the flower in my hand,
He held it midair without reason or plan.

  • End stop line

For example: in line 20

“That’s why I picked it; here, it’s for you.”

  • Alliteration

For example:

In line 12

I faked a small smile and then shifted away.

In line 21

The weed before me was dying or dead.

In line 25

I heard my voice quiver, tears shone in the sun

In line 30

A self-pitying woman beneath an old willow tree.

Character “I” in this poem can be discussed in terms of psychological point of view. We are examining a women living in a feeling of ungrateful to the God. The theme of this poem is everything in this world has its own ways to be appreciated by human. It tells about how human can be grateful to God for everything in this world. There’s no limitation such as time, shape, space or age. The narrator presented that the poem normally discuss about a worn-out flower that represent as the most beautiful flower that change her life a lot since it given by the blind young boy to her. She became aware that so far she is more lucky than that young boy. The young boy reminds her about her that actually instead of the world, the hindrance of her life come from the narrator her self. In other word, started from the first, the narrator wanted to convey about how human can change his/her life in terms of the behaviour. It’s about how the poet can change from ungrateful woman into grateful woman which always appreciates every second of her life. In short, the poem is successful because it conveyed the poet’s experience through emotional problem of the poet herself psychologically from perspective which is everything will become more beautiful if we look it from the true heart and be grateful to God as well.


The most beautiful flower of Cheryl L. Costello-Forshey’s poem explores the concept of gratefulness to the Almighty creator toward everthing that has given to our selves without considering how it looks like. We should appreciate every single thing that belongs to ours. The most important thing is how we can share our attention to another people by giving them appreciation so that it motivates them to be a good human.

Point of View:

In this poem, the poet is a woman. She use first-person point of view by using pronoun I. I think this poem about the personal experience of the poet since the poem tells about the feeling of the poet. The poet has an emotional problem like she blames the world as she isn’t grateful to the god. The poet feels as she is a pitiful human in the world till she meet the young boy. It means that the whole of this poem is also related to man and society but in terms of psychological point of view. The poem is related to man and society since there is also tells about the relationship between the poet to the young boy. There is an interaction between them. But, according to the message that is conveyed by the poet through this poem, I can conclude that this poem is based on psychologycal point of view, because it commonly tells about attitude, feeling and experience.

General meaning:

In this poem, the narrator described the changes of the poet’s attitude in interpreting her life from the negative perspective to the positive perspective through the flower that given by the blind young boy.


Detail meaning:

The poet begins by describing the situation of her life which she thinks that it is very terrible for her. The very gloomy life can be seen in the first stanza as the description of her life in her mind. The days that passed by her seems like very dissapointed by the world. Her attitude in interpreting her life in this world has changed since she met a young boy who came enthusiastically and sat beside her with a flower that looked so plain. Surprisingly, that flower is given to the woman specially. The flower is forced to be received by the poet since the young boy didn’t want to move from his seat beside the poet. Then, the poet realized that the young boy was blind, because he didn’t give the flower directly to her hand. But she was confused why did the young boy could know about her problem since she thought actually the young boy used his heart which had been blessed by the God with the true sight. By knowing that fact, the poet aware and regret about what she has done at the past, she realized that she had done a mistake in interpreting her life. She could know that she is the cause of her problem so far, which was actually her own heart. Then, she was very grateful to the God and thanked to the young boy that he had given her a very best flower that could change her perspective about her life. Next, from the young boy, she could see the beauty of that flower,  it couldn’t be seen from how it looked like concretely, but she could see it from her heart, how she appreciated the flower positively. So, she could see the beauty of the flower as well as the pretty smell of the flower until she called it the most beautiful flower. Finally, at the last stanza the poet told that she could tell that the plain flower as a beautiful rose and let it close to her nose because she could feel it from her true heart sight.

Poet’s Intention:

The poet does not simply set out to describe her feeling changing directly, but she make it in a long story from the first she met the young boy until the young boy brings her to the new character of the good person. From the way the poet described the sequences, we can see that she intented to make us realise every single situation of her experience, yet the the poet wanted the readers to appreciate everything that has given in their lives so that the reader could get the meaning easily. That is, seeing something is not only from the goodnesses but also from the weaknesses.

Figurative language:

I think it was difficult for me to find out the figurative speech in this poem since this poem is written by using dennotative meaning. I think the meaning of the poem is normally stated as the way it is. There are not many figure of speeches in this poem. So, from the whole of the poem, I only can find some figurative languages:

  • Hyperbole

I heard my voice quiver, tears shone in the sun Line 25

  • Personification

For the world was intent on dragging me down. Line 4


I my opinion, when I read this poem, I was feeling that I was grateful to God for everything that has given to me in this world. Simply, the readers can feel thank to God for the bless of anything that they have. Everyone who reads this poem must be motivated, and the most important thing is they must be interested to shared their special abilities to another person in this world.


The approach of this poem is psychological approach, because from the first line the poet tells about the emotional feeling that experienced by the poet. She got her problem also from her feeling and from her attitude. So, such from the first line that describe the poet feeling, the following also tells about another feeling or experience of the poet. The poem which used psychological approach normally provided some feelings, experiences, emotionals, attitudes and problems that were experienced by the character in the poem.


Posted by on August 20, 2014 in Poetry Analysis, PUISI, Tugas Kuliah


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The Summary of Elements of Poetry Analysis and Basic Versification : ELEMENTS OF POETRY ANALYSIS




Analyzing poetry is an activity which has concerned many readers for many years. We are concerned with explaining the methods and techniques of taking a poem apart in order to arrive at a greater understanding of  both its construction and its meaning.


Different poems or different kinds of poems, must be approached in different ways. No one could accurately or usefully analyze one poems to another we must think the best method to fit in the poems, how to decide which key to use for a particular lock


A poem , in other words, will have both a basic structure and a particular experience to relate. There are various kinds of poetic forms which describe not only the whole poem but its various parts as well. The content of a poem in recent times has come to mean the “experience” which the poem crystallizes or distills.


The irreducible content of poem is of course collections of words. Each word in poem is selected for a particular reason, often because it’s various connotation or implications. The ways in which the words are arranged and made to rhyme leads us to verification, which is the art of metrica composition the putting together of words to make poems.


There is virtually no limitation placed on the analysis of petry. One can go quite far when trying to arrive at the meaning of a poem. One reaches a point where one can not find evidence for proving what the poet meant when he wrote certain lines. One then has to be resourceful, to use the imagination, and in particular to search for the least obvious, yet possible, meaning.


Some poems are written purely to entertain us, others solely for the purpose of moral persuasion, we are urged perhaps to right actions or wrong action. Many poems try to be both entertaining and instructive , both amusing and edifying at the same time.


We may decide that the poem is nevertheless successful ehen considered from some other point of view. But it is very important that we always explain this distinction. At every step in poetic analysis we must be sure that we are letting ouer reader know presicely what we are discussing and why


Some people wrongly assume that a critic of petry is says harsh things about them. A critic is simply one who reads and attempt to explain poetry. One could offer only the highest praise for a poet or poem and be an excellent critic. Being a critic, is being creative and conscientious reader.


When we talk about analyzing poetry, we must always understand about literal and symbolic meaning. literal means straightforward or factual meanwhile symbolic means the use of one thing to represent something else


No poem is so completed. By this mean that poet always leaves some work for his reader. A poem only prompts us, stimulate us to further consideration. True, we may wander too far from the intention of the poet but as long we make some responses we are functioning as critic. One reader’s judgement may cause another reader to express dissent and this is usually desirable.


Analysis, in other words, is a process of intellectual discussion of a whole into its ingredients in order to understand and appreciate the integrity and meaning of the whole—poem.


One reason we undertake the analysis of poetry is to discover what is “characteristic” of a particular poet. Usually as we labor toward what is characteristic we need to make trial hypotheses, find exceptions, then move on to new hypotheses.


To become appreciative readers of poetry, in any case, it is necessary that we work  for both concrete and subtle analysis of the poems we read. As readers like Matthew Arnold and T.S. Eliot have repeatedly pointed out, we arrive at a greater understanding of people and of our society by arriving at an understanding of poetry; there is indeed a relationship between “the literature we read and the life we lead”





It is not easy to respond to art as one might think, but we must confront the art of writing poetry as an art. As with meaning, art operates on different levels. There is the basic art—metrical composition—which is the foundation for any poem. The art of using words to make a poem—diction, tone, imagery—operates upon this basic foundation.

We are really engaged in the art of analyzing poetry as long as we respond to both the content and the art of a poem, dissecting it into its various parts, all in the effort of arriving at the greater understanding of the poem, the poet, poetry, and life. The analysis of poetry calls for responding to art with art. Analysis is comprehensive—but so is poem. And in learning to practice the art of analyzing poetry, let us pursue a goal of excellence. Only then will the poets be satisfied.



RHYTHM IN POETRY: Rhythm in poetry is created by the patterns of repeated sounds­­—in terms of both duration and quality and ideas.

Investigation of versification


All poetry is written in some particular meter; that is, poems are made from a collection of lines which have a certain number of syllables, some of lines which are accented (receive stress) and some of which are not (receive no stress).When stress is placed on a word, accent result. But the reader should try to “feel” the accent as it creates a rhythm.  Here’s some example in order to hear the rhythm from some stanza of  “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” :


The sun came up upon the left

Out of the sea came he!

And he shone bright, and on the right,

Went down into the sea



The line that seems to be divided into a number of repeated units combining the same number of accented and unaccented syllables, this unit is known as a poetic foot; each line of poetry therefore has a certain number of poetic feet. As the pattern of one foot is repeated or varied in the next, a pattern for the entire line and then for the poem is established. Feet containing different numbers of syllables, accented and unaccented, have different names. The following are the most common:

  1. IAMBIC: The iambic foot (an iamb) is composed of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable.


  1. TROCHAIC: The trochaic foot (a trochee) is the reverse of an iambic foot. The trochaic foot, in other words, is made up of two syllables, the first one stressed and the second one unstressed.
  2. DACTLYIC: Not all poetic feet have two syllables. The dactylic foot (a dactyl), for example, is composed of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables.
  3. ANAPESTIC: The reserve of a dactylic foot is anapestic foot (an anapest); in other words, it is compos of two unstressed syllables followed by one that is stressed.
  4. SPONDAIC: A fifth kind of foot has two stressed a no unstressed syllables; the emphasis, in other words, is one plane. This is called a spondaic foot (a spondee). Most frequently, the spondaic foot occurs in isolation near beginning of a line which has another metrical pattern.



The number of feet containe in any given line determines its name. A line having only on foot is referred to as monometer (mono, meaning one, plus meter). Similarly, a line of two feet is called dimeter, threefeet, trimeter. A complete table follows :


NUMBER OF FEET IN  LINE :                                                       NAME OF LINE

  1.                                                                                        monometer
  2.                                                                                        dimeter
  3.                                                                                        tetrameter
  4.                                                                                        pentameter
  5. hexameter
  6. heptameter
  7. octameter



When we know the names of the poetic feet and the names for lines having certain number of feet, we can name a line properly, referring to both the kind of foot, and the number of feet. To return to our opening line, for example, “ How vainly men themselves amaze“ we can see that it has four feet written in iambic treasure; thus the line is written in iambic tetrameter.


After identifying and naming the metrical elements of a poem, we can make more generalized statements about the way the rhythm works. When the unaccented  syllables come first, for example, (as in iambic and anapestic feet), the verse is said to be written in rising meter as we are moving up toward the emphasis; conversely, when the stressed syllable is followed by the unstressed syllables (as in trochaic and dactylic feet), the verse is said to be written in a failing meter, as we are sliding back and away from the emphasis.


If a line ends with an extra or additional, unaccented syllable, it is said to have a “soft “or feminine ending. If the line ends in a hard, accented syllables, (not additional) it has a masculine ending.


The pause in a line is referred to as a caesura and is often best discovered by reading the poem aloud.

Example : (caesura after the word “Milton”)


Milton ! Thou shouldst be living at this hour



A further distinction must be made between a line of poetry which pauses most naturally at the end of a line, usually with a completed clause or with the ending of a sentence, and a line of poetry which runs on past the end of the line into the next one before pausing naturally.



Unrhymed iambic pentameter. The form was developed by the Italians and introduced into English literature during Renaissance. Since there is no rhyme used, the units of thought form the stanzaic divisions. Thought the use of techniques like enjambement , end-stopped lines, etc. the poet is able to write verse units without rhyme .










Rhyme, usually occurs at line endings in poetry and consist of words which have the same sound; the letters preceding the vowel, must, however, be unlike in sound. For instance: ‘night’ and ‘sight’ are true rhymes.


Perfect rhymes or exact rhyme, occur when the stressed  vowels following differing consonant sound are identical. The sound, not the spelling, determines whether or not the sounds are identical.  For example, slow and grow, fleet and street, buying and crying, bring and sing.

Half-ryme or approximate rhyme occur when the final.consonant sound of rhyming words are identical. The stress vowel sounds and any preceding consonant sound differ.

The following lines from Keats’ famous “Ode on a Grecian Urn” exhibit a pair of perfect rhymes and pair of imperfect rhymes:

Thou still unravish’d bride of quietness,            1

Thou foster-child of Silence and slom Time              (half-rhymes)     2

Sylvan historian, who canst thus express           3                                             (perfect rhyme)

A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:                                     4

The “ess” sound is identical in the first and third line,  while the “ime” sound is identical in the second and fourth. The first and third lines are half-rhymes, since only the final consonant sound are identical. The second and fourth lines are perfect rhymes; the stressed vowel sounds are identical and the following consonant sounds are both the same. The following poem exhibit two pair of half-rhyme, or approximate rhyme:

Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard

Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on

Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear’d

              Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone:

We can see that “heard” and “dear’d” are not identical sound; nor are “on” and “tone.” The initial consonants, and the vowel sound differ, but in each pair, the final consonant sound is identical. It is not irregular, incidentally, for a poet to combine perfect and imperfect rhymes. Sometimes the meaning calls for an effect best achieved by an imperfectly rhyming pair of sounds.



Masculine rhyme occur when the final syllables of the rhyming words are stressed. After the difference in the initial consonants, the words are identical in sound.

E.g: contort and purport

Feminine rhyme is the rhyming of stresses syllables followed by identical unstressed syllables.

E.g: treasure and pleasure.

The following excerpt from Matthew Arnold’s “The Scholar-Gipsy” illustrate these two types. The first, the masculine rhyme, “inquired”-“desired,” and the second, the feminine rhyme, “flowers”-“bowers.”

But once, years after, in the country lanes,

Two scholars, whom at college erst he knew,

Met him, and of his way of life inquired.

     Whereat he answered that the Gipsy crew,                 masculine rhyme

His mates, had arts to rule as they desired

              The workings of mens brains;

And leaning backwards in a pensive dream,

And fostering in thy lap a heap of flowers                             

Plucked in shy fields and distant wychwood bowers,          feminine rhyme

And thine eyes resting on the moonlit stream:


Most poems written with end-rhyme. End-rhyme means that the rhyming sound are found at the ends of the lines, as in the above lines by Arnold. Meanwhile internal rhyme means that the rhyming words are found within the line, often a word in the middle of a line rhyming with the last word or sound in the line. The opening of Tennyson’s poem, “Blow, Bugle, Blow,” illustrate internal rhyme:

The splendour falls on castle walls

                 And snowy summits old in story:

The long light shakes across the lakes

And the wild cataract leaps in glory.

Through the example of “story” and “glory,” that using internal rhyme does not in any way prevent a poet from using end rhyme as well.



We label the first sound “a,” the next “b,” then “c,” “d,” etc to describe the pattern of rhyme in a poem or stanza. We use the same letter originally use to label the sound that reappears. The following poem from the lines of first Arnold excerpt would be labelled:

But once, years after, in the country lanes,                      a

Two scholars, whom at college erst he knew,                     b

Met him, and of his way of life inquired.                      c

     Whereat he answered that the Gipsy crew,                      b

His mates, had arts to rule as they desired                     c

              The workings of mens brains;                      a

We would then name the entire stanza in this way, and summarize the rhyme of the stanza by saying that the pattern of rhyme is abcbca, etc. This is known as the stanza’s rhyme-scheme. Simply, we can say the rhyme-scheme is the pattern of rhyme.


Initial-rhyme, usually referred to as alliteration. Here the same sound starts several words. Consider the following lines from Swinburn’s “Chorus from ‘Atlanta’ “:

For winter’s rains and ruins are over,                 repetition of the “r” sound

And all the season of snow and sins;               repetition of the “s” sound

The day dividing lover and lover,                repetition of both the “d” and the “l” sound

The light that loses, the night that wins.                 repetition of the “l” sound

Alliteration is the repetition of the same sound at frequent intervals. Another example is from the first and second line of first stanza in The Ancient Mariner poem.

The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,

The furrow followed free.

The repeated ‘b’s and ‘f’s here make the lines run quickly and give the impression of a ship travelling at high speed.


Assonance is the use of identical vowel sounds surrounded by different kinds of consonant sound in words in close proximity each other.

E.g: “bird” and “thirst”

The ‘er’ sound is identical in both words while at the same time enclosed by different consonant sounds.

Consonance is the reverse of assonance. Thus in consonance, consonant sounds are the same but there are different vowel sounds. For example, the words “wood” and “weed” have identical consonant sounds but different vowel sounds and thus they are consonant.


Onomatopoeia is the technique of using a word whose sound suggest its meaning. Onomatopoeia occurs in words which imitate sounds and thus suggest the object described. Words like cuckoo, crackle,  hum, buzz, swish, crash, jangle, etc are often cite as example, but some onomatopoeia is less obvious for example ‘shiver’ or ‘quake’. The following are some example of onomatopeia in a poem.

            Gr-r-r—there go, my heart’s abhorrence! (from the first line of Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister poem by Robert Browning)

            Ding-dong, bell. (from the ninth line of Full Fathom Five poem by William Shakespeare)



Stanzas are the major divisions made in a poem in a regular or consistent way. In shor, a stanza is a group of lines and therefore a recognizable unit in a poem, ordinarily, each stanza follows a particular rhyme scheme. Some of the  more common stanzas are couplet, triplet, quatrain, sestet, rhyme royal, octave, sonnet, spenserian stanza, and ottava rima.


A couplet is a stanza composed of only two lines which usually rhyme. In other words, a couplet is one line couplet to another. An heroic couplet, is a stanza composed of two rhyming lines of iambic pentameter; in the following lines, Dryden describes a contemporary by using two heroic couplets:

A man so varioues, that he seem’d to be

Not one, but all mankind’s epitome:

Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong;

Was everything by stars, and nothing long.



A triplet is a stanza composed of three lines, usually with one repeated rhyme, or a rhyme scheme of aaa. The following triplet is by Herrick:

Whenas in silks my Julia goes

Then, then (methinks) how sweetly flows

That liquefaction of her clothes.


A quatrain is a stanza composed of four lines, either rhyming or not rhyming. As with the heroic couplet, the quatrain is written in alternating rhymes of iambic pentameter. In heneral, a qutrain is any four-line stanza, as the following one by Marvell:

My love is of a birth as rare

As ‘tis for object strange and high:

It was begotten by despair

Upon impossibility.


A sestet is a stanza composed of si lines. A sestet is usually the second part of a sonnet. As all sonnets have foutrteen lines, they are often divided into an octave and a sestet. The most common rhyme-sheme of a sestet is abcabc, an example of a sestet can be seen in the last lines of Milton’s sonnet, “When I Consider How My Light Is Spent”:

That murmur, soon replies, God doth not need                       a

Either man’s work or his own gifts, who best                    b

Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best; his state                      c

Is kingly. Thousand at his bidding speed                       a

And post o’er land and ocean without rest:                   b

They also serve who only stand and wait                    c



A rhyme royal is a stanza composed of seven lines written in iambic pentameter and rhyming ababbcc, the following is the eample of rhyme royal stanza:

In May that moder is of monthes glade,

That fresshe flowers blewe and white and rede

Beeb quike again, that winter ded made,

And full of baume is fleting every mede,

Whan Phebusb dooth his brighte bemas sprede

Right in the White Bole, it so bitidde,

As I shal singe, on Mayes day the thridde.


An octave is a stanza composed of eight lines; an octave is the name given to the first eight lines of a sonnet, the last six being a sestet.


The sonnet is a fourteen-line poem written in iambic pentameter. The Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet is divided into an octave and a sestet; the octave rhymes abba, abba; the sestet, cde, cde, or variations thereof. The English (Shakespearian) sonnet is usually written in three quatrians and a couplet. The sonnet form is an excellent example of the close interrelationship of form and content.


A Spenserian stanza is stanza composed of nine lines, the first eight of which are written in iambic pentameter while the last or ninth line is written in iambic hexameter. The final line, in other words, has one extra foot. Although originally used only by Spenser (in his Fearie Queence), the Spenserian stanza has found  wide usage by other poets, notably Burns, and Keats. The following Spenserian stanza is from Shellev’s The Revolt of Islam:

I could not choose but gaze; a fascination
Dwelt in that moon, and sky, and clouds, which drew
My fancy thither, and expectation
Of  what I know not,  I remained: —the hue
Of the white moon, amid that heaven so blue,
Suddenly  stained whit shadow did appear;
A speck, a cloud, a shape, approaching grew,
Like a great ship in the sun’s sinking sphere
Beheld afar at sea, and swift it came anear.


Ottava rima is stanza composed of eight lines rhyming abababcc and written in iambic pentameter. Like spensrian stanza, the ottava rima is a particular, specialize stanzaic form.

  1. g. : But words are things, and small drop of ink
    Falling like dew, apon a thought, produces
    That which make thousand, perhaps million, think;
    Tis strange, the shortest letter which man uses
    instead of speech. May form a lasting link
    Of ages; to what straits old Time reduces
    Frail man, when paper-even a rag like this,
    Survives himself, his tomb, and all that’s his!
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Posted by on August 9, 2014 in Tugas Kuliah


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Point of View



What Is Point of View?

Point of view is the perspective point from which a writer narrates or tells a story, or point of view is the relationship of the narrator or storyteller to the story.

Every story is certainly told by someone that usually called a narrator. Point of view is a device for narrator to indicate the position from which an action is observed and narrated. An author of a fiction must choose a point ofview from which he will narrate his story.

According to Peck (1994:68), point of view is a technique that is used by the author to find and tell the meaning of his literary work to the readers. The author expects that the readers can accept his technique. Point of view has psychological connection to the readers, and the readers need clear perception about the point of view.

Point of view can be divided in to first-person point of view, second person point of view, third-person point of view, omniscient and limited omniscient point of view .





First-Person Point of View

First-person point of view is the use of first person as narrator of a story.

In first-person point of view, the narrator:

  • is involved in the story as a character
  • knows and can tell only what he or she thinks, sees and feels
  • may be reliable and trustworthy or an unreliable narrator

First-person point of view is marked by pronoun I, me, my, mine, we, us, and ours. The “I” has a name, but the name is rarely called, because he is telling his experience himself. The name of the “I” perhaps called in the other character. In this point of view the narrator only knows about himself.

Example of first-person point of view


At three o’clock I cried, “Print off,” and turned to go, when there crept to my chair what was left of a man. He was bent in a circle, his head was sunk between his shoulders, and he moved his feet one over the other like a bear. I could hardly see whether he walked or crawled. . . . “Can you give me a drink?” he whimpered. . . .

I went back to the office, the man followed with groans of pain, and I turned up the lamp.

“Don’t you know me?” he gasped.

from “The Man Who Would Be King” by Rudyard Kipling

Second-Person Point of View

In second-person point of view the narrator is telling the story of another character, and that character is “you.”. This point of view treats the reader as the main character in the story. Descriptions are based on what you would see if you were in that situation. This narrative voice is generally reserved for explanatory articles and how-to books, but adventurous writers will occasionally pen a short story or novel in the second person. This is not common in fiction as it involves the reader so directly and can feel too intimate.






As you walk up the hill, you realize that the atmosphere’s just too quiet. There’s no sound from the cardinal you know is almost always singing from the top of the maple tree. You think you see a shadow move high up on the slope, but when you look again it’s gone. You shudder as you feel a silent threat pass over you. You feel cold, like a cloud just passed over the sun.


Third-Person Point of View

In the third-person point of view, the narrator is an outsider to the story who reports the events of the story to the reader. The narrator refer to the characteristic either by name or by the pronouns he, she, they, her, him and them.

The name of characters, especially main characters is called continuously. So the readers are easier to know who the characters are.




When the Saclaloses arrived at the new house, it was late afternoon. They’d been driving for five hours, and they were all hot and sticky. When the car crunched to a stop, they just sat there, drowsy and disoriented.

“So here it is,” said Peter Saclalos, slapping his hands to his legs. “Our new house.”

Amy wearily peeled the stereo headset off her ears and looked around. “No point in getting excited,” she whispered to herself. They’d moved five times in the past two years. She hated moving, but complaining got her nowhere. She sighed, her face a mask of boredom.

John got out of the car first. His face was blank. He felt sick to his stomach.

“So, what do you think?” asked Mr. Saclalos. “Not bad, huh? There’s lots of space,

that’s for sure. You’ll have your own bedroom this time.”

 John just shrugged and looked away.



Third­-person point of view can be divided in to two: third-person omniscient point of view and third-person limited omniscient point of view.



Third-Person Omniscient Point of View

In the third-person omniscient point of view, the narrator is all-knowing. The narrator:

  • knows and can tell what any character is thinking and feeling
  • tells thought and fellings of more than one character
  • plays no part in the story
  • knows what is happening in all of the story’s settings


The frown on the bachelor’s face was deepening to a scowl. He was a hard, unsympathetic man, the aunt decided in her mind. . . .

            The smaller girl created a diversion by beginning to recite “On the Road to Mandalay.” She only knew the first line, but she put her limited knowledge to the fullest possible use. . . . It seemed to the bachelor as though someone had had a bet with her that she could repeat the line aloud two thousand times without stopping.

from “The Storyteller” by Saki



How can we tell that this excerpt is written from the third-person-limited point of view? Because the narrator knows the thoughts of all three characters.






Third-Person-Limited Point of View

In third-person-limited point of view, the narrator:

  • plays no part in the story
  • knows and can tell what a single character is thinking and feeling
  • is limited to ne character



So they parted; and the young man pursued his way until, being about to turn the corner by the meeting-house, he looked back and saw the head of Faith still peeping after him with a melancholy air, in spite of her pink ribbons.

 “Poor little Faith!” thought he, for his heart smote him. “What a wretch am I to leave her on such an errand! She talks of dreams, too.”

 from “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne


The narrator knows the thoughts of only one character.

Is it possible in a story or literary work has more than one point of view?

Answer: Yes it is. In a story might be has one point of view, it ussually called mixed point of view or multiple point of view.

Mixed point of view

A novel may use more than one point of view. The author can change the point of view from one technique to another in a story that he made. All of them depend on the author creativity, how he uses the technique to reach effectiveness of telling the story in order to give an impression to the readers. The use of this point of view in a novel maybe as the third person with technique “He” as omniscient person and “He” as observer or first person with technique “I” as main character and ”I” as a peripheral character, or maybe a mixture of first person and third person at all one.


PDF file “The Intrisic Elements of Literature”

PPT file “Point of View”

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Posted by on August 9, 2014 in Tugas Kuliah


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Article Review_A Discourse Analysis of Business Letters Written By Iranians & Native Speaker_Author: Mansour Arvani



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2013 in review

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 16,000 times in 2013. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 6 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

Click here to see the complete report.

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