2014 in review

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Ditulis oleh pada Januari 1, 2015 in uncategories


Poetry Analysis_The Most Beautiful Flower

The Most Beautiful Flower
By Cheryl L. Costello-Forshey

The park bench was deserted as I sat down to read
Beneath the long, straggly branches of an old willow tree.
Disillusioned by life with good reason to frown,
For the world was intent on dragging me down.
And if that weren’t enough to ruin my day,
A young boy out of breath approached me, all tired from play.
He stood right before me with his head tilted down
And said with great excitement, “Look what I found!”

In his hand was a flower, and what a pitiful sight,
With its petals all worn – not enough rain, or too little light.
Wanting him to take his dead flower and go off to play,
I faked a small smile and then shifted away.
But instead of retreating he sat next to my side
And placed the flower to his nose and declared with overacted surprise,
“It sure smells pretty and it’s beautiful, too.
“That’s why I picked it; here, it’s for you.”

The weed before me was dying or dead.
Not vibrant of colors, orange, yellow or red.
But I knew I must take it, or he might never leave.
So I reached for the flower, and replied, “Just what I need.”
But instead of him placing the flower in my hand,
He held it midair without reason or plan.
It was then that I noticed for the very first time
That weed-toting boy could not see: he was blind.

I heard my voice quiver, tears shone in the sun
As I thanked him for picking the very best one.
“You’re welcome,” he smiled, and then ran off to play,
Unaware of the impact he’d had on my day.
I sat there and wondered how he managed to see
A self-pitying woman beneath an old willow tree.
How did he know of my self-indulged plight?
Perhaps from his heart, he’d been blessed with true sight.
Through the eyes of a blind child, at last I could see
The problem was not with the world; the problem was me.
And for all of those times I myself had been blind,
I vowed to see the beauty in life, and appreciate every second that’s mine.
And then I held that wilted flower up to my nose
And breathed in the fragrance of a beautiful rose
And smiled as I watched that young boy, another weed in his hand
About to change the life of an unsuspecting old man.

Analysis for The Most Beautiful Flower poem by Cheryl L. Costello-Forshey


This Cheryl L. Costello-Forshey’s poetry is written in five eight-line stanzas (octaves) that follow a rhyming pattern of abccddcc for the first stanza,  aabbccdd for the second stanza, aabaccdc for the third stanza,  aabbccdd for the fourth stanza,  aabbccbb for the last stanza So, the rhyme scheme of this poem is irregular. it is uncommon rhyme scheme.  It is hard to decide the poetic feet because the poet use free verse style, so there is no pattern in rhyme. Each line of this poem contains varying numbers of types of poetic feet. There are also:

  • Assonance

in the first stanza in line 3 and 4

Disillusioned by life with good reason to frown,

For the world was intent on dragging me down.

In line 9 and 10 of the third stanza

In his hand was a flower, and what a pitiful sight,

With its petals all worn – not enough rain, or too little light.

in line 39 and 40 of the last stanza

And smiled as I watched that young boy, another weed in his hand
About to change the life of an unsuspecting old man.

  • Run on line

For example: in line 26 and 27

But instead of him placing the flower in my hand,
He held it midair without reason or plan.

  • End stop line

For example: in line 20

“That’s why I picked it; here, it’s for you.”

  • Alliteration

For example:

in line 12

I faked a small smile and then shifted away.

in line 21

The weed before me was dying or dead.

In line 25

I heard my voice quiver, tears shone in the sun

In line 30

A self-pitying woman beneath an old willow tree.

Character I in this poem can be discussed in terms of psychological point of view. We are examining a women living in a feeling of ungrateful to the God. The theme of this poem is that everythings in this world has their own ways to be appreciated by human. It tells about how human be grateful to the God for everything in this world. There’s no limitation such as time, shape, space or age. The narrator presents that the poem normally discuss about a worn-out flower that represent as the most beautiful flower that change her life a lot since it given by the blind young boy to her. She became aware that so far she is more lucky than that young boy. The young boy reminds her about her that actually instead of the world the hindrance of her life come from the narrator her self. In other word, From the first, the narrator is want to convey about how human can change his/her life in terms of the behaviour. It’s about how the poet can change from ungrateful woman into grateful woman which always appreciated every second of her life. In short, the poem is successful because it conveys the poet experience through the emotional problem of the poet psychologically from the perspective that everything is became look beautiful if we see from the true heart and grateful to the God as well.


The most beautiful flower of Cheryl L. Costello-Forshey’s poem is explores the concept of gratefulness to the Almighty creator toward everthing that has given to our selves without considering how it look like. We should appreciate every single thing that belongs to ours. The most important thing is how we can share our attention to another people by giving them appreciation so that it motivates them to be a good human.

Point of View:

In this poem, the poet is a woman. She use first-person point of view by using pronoun I. I think this poem about the personal experience of the poet. Because, the poem tells about the feeling of the poet. The poet has the emotional problem that is, she blames the world as she isn’t grateful to the god. The poet feels as she is a pitiful human in the world till she meet the young boy. It means that the whole of this poem is also related to man and society but in terms psychological point of view. The poem is relate to man and society since there is also tells about the relationship between the poet to the young boy, there is an interaction between them. But according to the message that conveyed by the poet through this poem, I can conclude that this poem is based on psychologycal point of view, because it commonly tells about attitude, feeling and experience.

General meaning:

In this poem, the narrator describe the changes of the poet’s attitude in interpreting her life from the negative perspective to the positive perspective through the flower that given by the blind young boy.


Detail meaning:

The poet begins by describing the situation of her life which she think that it is very terrible for her. The very gloomy life can be seen in the first stanza as the description of her life in her mind. The days that passed by her seems like very dissapointed by the world. Her attitude in interpreting her life in this world has changed since she met a young boy who came enthusiastically and sit beside her with a flower that look so plain. Surprisingly, that flower is given to the woman specially. The flower is forced receive by the poet since the young boy don’t want to move from his seat beside the poet. Then, the poet realized that the young boy was blind, because he didn’t give the flower directly to her hand. But she is confuse why does the young boy could know about her matter since she think if that actually the young boy use his heart who has be blessed by the God with the true sight. By knowing that fact, the poet aware and regret about what she has done at the past, she realized that she has do a mistake in interpreting her life. She could know that she is the resource of her problem so far, exactly her heart. Then, she was very grateful to the God and thanked to the young boy that he has given her a very best flower that can change her perspective about her life. Next, by the young boy she able to see the beautiful of that flower,  it can’t be seen from how look like concretely, but she see it from the heart, how she appreciate the flower positively. So then she can see di beauty of the flower as well as the pretty smell of the flower until she called it the most beautiful flower. Finally in the last stanza the poet tells that she can mean the plain flower as a beautiful rose and let it close to her nose because she feels it from the true heart sight.

Poet’s Intention:

The poet does not simply set out to describe her feeling changes directly, but she make it in a long story from the first she met the young boy until the young boy brings her to the new character of the good person. From the way the poet describe the sequences, we can see that she intents to make we realize every single situation of her experience, yet the the poet want the reader to appreciate everything that has given in this life and so that the reader can get the meaning easily. That is, see something not only from the goodness but also from the weakness.

Figurative language:

I think it’s difficult for me to find out the figurative speech in this poem since this poem is written by using dennotative meaning. I think the meaning of the poem is normally stated as the way it is. There are not many figure of speech in this poem. So, from the whole of the poem, I only can find some figurative language:

  • Hyperbole

I heard my voice quiver, tears shone in the sun Line 25

  • Personification

For the world was intent on dragging me down. Line 4


I my opinion, when I read this poem, I feel that I was grateful to God for everything that has given to me in this world. Simply, the readers can feel thank to God for the bless of anything that they have. Everyone who read this poem must be motivated, and the most important they must be interested to shared their special ability to another person in this world.


The approach of this poem is psychological approach, because from the first line the poet tells about the emotional feeling that experienced by the poet. She get her problem also from her feeling and from her attitude. So, such from the first line that describe the poet feeling, the following also tells about another feeling or experience of the poet. The poem that use psychological approach is normally provide some feeling, experience, emotional, attitude and problem that all of the is experienced by the character in the poem.

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Ditulis oleh pada Agustus 20, 2014 in Poetry Analysis, PUISI, Tugas Kuliah


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The Summary of Elements of Poetry Analysis and Basic Versification : ELEMENTS OF POETRY ANALYSIS




Analyzing poetry is an activity which has concerned many readers for many years. We are concerned with explaining the methods and techniques of taking a poem apart in order to arrive at a greater understanding of  both its construction and its meaning.


Different poems or different kinds of poems, must be approached in different ways. No one could accurately or usefully analyze one poems to another we must think the best method to fit in the poems, how to decide which key to use for a particular lock


A poem , in other words, will have both a basic structure and a particular experience to relate. There are various kinds of poetic forms which describe not only the whole poem but its various parts as well. The content of a poem in recent times has come to mean the “experience” which the poem crystallizes or distills.


The irreducible content of poem is of course collections of words. Each word in poem is selected for a particular reason, often because it’s various connotation or implications. The ways in which the words are arranged and made to rhyme leads us to verification, which is the art of metrica composition the putting together of words to make poems.


There is virtually no limitation placed on the analysis of petry. One can go quite far when trying to arrive at the meaning of a poem. One reaches a point where one can not find evidence for proving what the poet meant when he wrote certain lines. One then has to be resourceful, to use the imagination, and in particular to search for the least obvious, yet possible, meaning.


Some poems are written purely to entertain us, others solely for the purpose of moral persuasion, we are urged perhaps to right actions or wrong action. Many poems try to be both entertaining and instructive , both amusing and edifying at the same time.


We may decide that the poem is nevertheless successful ehen considered from some other point of view. But it is very important that we always explain this distinction. At every step in poetic analysis we must be sure that we are letting ouer reader know presicely what we are discussing and why


Some people wrongly assume that a critic of petry is says harsh things about them. A critic is simply one who reads and attempt to explain poetry. One could offer only the highest praise for a poet or poem and be an excellent critic. Being a critic, is being creative and conscientious reader.


When we talk about analyzing poetry, we must always understand about literal and symbolic meaning. literal means straightforward or factual meanwhile symbolic means the use of one thing to represent something else


No poem is so completed. By this mean that poet always leaves some work for his reader. A poem only prompts us, stimulate us to further consideration. True, we may wander too far from the intention of the poet but as long we make some responses we are functioning as critic. One reader’s judgement may cause another reader to express dissent and this is usually desirable.


Analysis, in other words, is a process of intellectual discussion of a whole into its ingredients in order to understand and appreciate the integrity and meaning of the whole—poem.


One reason we undertake the analysis of poetry is to discover what is “characteristic” of a particular poet. Usually as we labor toward what is characteristic we need to make trial hypotheses, find exceptions, then move on to new hypotheses.


To become appreciative readers of poetry, in any case, it is necessary that we work  for both concrete and subtle analysis of the poems we read. As readers like Matthew Arnold and T.S. Eliot have repeatedly pointed out, we arrive at a greater understanding of people and of our society by arriving at an understanding of poetry; there is indeed a relationship between “the literature we read and the life we lead”





It is not easy to respond to art as one might think, but we must confront the art of writing poetry as an art. As with meaning, art operates on different levels. There is the basic art—metrical composition—which is the foundation for any poem. The art of using words to make a poem—diction, tone, imagery—operates upon this basic foundation.

We are really engaged in the art of analyzing poetry as long as we respond to both the content and the art of a poem, dissecting it into its various parts, all in the effort of arriving at the greater understanding of the poem, the poet, poetry, and life. The analysis of poetry calls for responding to art with art. Analysis is comprehensive—but so is poem. And in learning to practice the art of analyzing poetry, let us pursue a goal of excellence. Only then will the poets be satisfied.



RHYTHM IN POETRY: Rhythm in poetry is created by the patterns of repeated sounds­­—in terms of both duration and quality and ideas.

Investigation of versification


All poetry is written in some particular meter; that is, poems are made from a collection of lines which have a certain number of syllables, some of lines which are accented (receive stress) and some of which are not (receive no stress).When stress is placed on a word, accent result. But the reader should try to “feel” the accent as it creates a rhythm.  Here’s some example in order to hear the rhythm from some stanza of  “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” :


The sun came up upon the left

Out of the sea came he!

And he shone bright, and on the right,

Went down into the sea



The line that seems to be divided into a number of repeated units combining the same number of accented and unaccented syllables, this unit is known as a poetic foot; each line of poetry therefore has a certain number of poetic feet. As the pattern of one foot is repeated or varied in the next, a pattern for the entire line and then for the poem is established. Feet containing different numbers of syllables, accented and unaccented, have different names. The following are the most common:

  1. IAMBIC: The iambic foot (an iamb) is composed of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable.


  1. TROCHAIC: The trochaic foot (a trochee) is the reverse of an iambic foot. The trochaic foot, in other words, is made up of two syllables, the first one stressed and the second one unstressed.
  2. DACTLYIC: Not all poetic feet have two syllables. The dactylic foot (a dactyl), for example, is composed of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables.
  3. ANAPESTIC: The reserve of a dactylic foot is anapestic foot (an anapest); in other words, it is compos of two unstressed syllables followed by one that is stressed.
  4. SPONDAIC: A fifth kind of foot has two stressed a no unstressed syllables; the emphasis, in other words, is one plane. This is called a spondaic foot (a spondee). Most frequently, the spondaic foot occurs in isolation near beginning of a line which has another metrical pattern.



The number of feet containe in any given line determines its name. A line having only on foot is referred to as monometer (mono, meaning one, plus meter). Similarly, a line of two feet is called dimeter, threefeet, trimeter. A complete table follows :


NUMBER OF FEET IN  LINE :                                                       NAME OF LINE

  1.                                                                                        monometer
  2.                                                                                        dimeter
  3.                                                                                        tetrameter
  4.                                                                                        pentameter
  5. hexameter
  6. heptameter
  7. octameter



When we know the names of the poetic feet and the names for lines having certain number of feet, we can name a line properly, referring to both the kind of foot, and the number of feet. To return to our opening line, for example, “ How vainly men themselves amaze“ we can see that it has four feet written in iambic treasure; thus the line is written in iambic tetrameter.


After identifying and naming the metrical elements of a poem, we can make more generalized statements about the way the rhythm works. When the unaccented  syllables come first, for example, (as in iambic and anapestic feet), the verse is said to be written in rising meter as we are moving up toward the emphasis; conversely, when the stressed syllable is followed by the unstressed syllables (as in trochaic and dactylic feet), the verse is said to be written in a failing meter, as we are sliding back and away from the emphasis.


If a line ends with an extra or additional, unaccented syllable, it is said to have a “soft “or feminine ending. If the line ends in a hard, accented syllables, (not additional) it has a masculine ending.


The pause in a line is referred to as a caesura and is often best discovered by reading the poem aloud.

Example : (caesura after the word “Milton”)


Milton ! Thou shouldst be living at this hour



A further distinction must be made between a line of poetry which pauses most naturally at the end of a line, usually with a completed clause or with the ending of a sentence, and a line of poetry which runs on past the end of the line into the next one before pausing naturally.



Unrhymed iambic pentameter. The form was developed by the Italians and introduced into English literature during Renaissance. Since there is no rhyme used, the units of thought form the stanzaic divisions. Thought the use of techniques like enjambement , end-stopped lines, etc. the poet is able to write verse units without rhyme .










Rhyme, usually occurs at line endings in poetry and consist of words which have the same sound; the letters preceding the vowel, must, however, be unlike in sound. For instance: ‘night’ and ‘sight’ are true rhymes.


Perfect rhymes or exact rhyme, occur when the stressed  vowels following differing consonant sound are identical. The sound, not the spelling, determines whether or not the sounds are identical.  For example, slow and grow, fleet and street, buying and crying, bring and sing.

Half-ryme or approximate rhyme occur when the final.consonant sound of rhyming words are identical. The stress vowel sounds and any preceding consonant sound differ.

The following lines from Keats’ famous “Ode on a Grecian Urn” exhibit a pair of perfect rhymes and pair of imperfect rhymes:

Thou still unravish’d bride of quietness,            1

Thou foster-child of Silence and slom Time              (half-rhymes)     2

Sylvan historian, who canst thus express           3                                             (perfect rhyme)

A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:                                     4

The “ess” sound is identical in the first and third line,  while the “ime” sound is identical in the second and fourth. The first and third lines are half-rhymes, since only the final consonant sound are identical. The second and fourth lines are perfect rhymes; the stressed vowel sounds are identical and the following consonant sounds are both the same. The following poem exhibit two pair of half-rhyme, or approximate rhyme:

Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard

Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on

Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear’d

              Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone:

We can see that “heard” and “dear’d” are not identical sound; nor are “on” and “tone.” The initial consonants, and the vowel sound differ, but in each pair, the final consonant sound is identical. It is not irregular, incidentally, for a poet to combine perfect and imperfect rhymes. Sometimes the meaning calls for an effect best achieved by an imperfectly rhyming pair of sounds.



Masculine rhyme occur when the final syllables of the rhyming words are stressed. After the difference in the initial consonants, the words are identical in sound.

E.g: contort and purport

Feminine rhyme is the rhyming of stresses syllables followed by identical unstressed syllables.

E.g: treasure and pleasure.

The following excerpt from Matthew Arnold’s “The Scholar-Gipsy” illustrate these two types. The first, the masculine rhyme, “inquired”-“desired,” and the second, the feminine rhyme, “flowers”-“bowers.”

But once, years after, in the country lanes,

Two scholars, whom at college erst he knew,

Met him, and of his way of life inquired.

     Whereat he answered that the Gipsy crew,                 masculine rhyme

His mates, had arts to rule as they desired

              The workings of mens brains;

And leaning backwards in a pensive dream,

And fostering in thy lap a heap of flowers                             

Plucked in shy fields and distant wychwood bowers,          feminine rhyme

And thine eyes resting on the moonlit stream:


Most poems written with end-rhyme. End-rhyme means that the rhyming sound are found at the ends of the lines, as in the above lines by Arnold. Meanwhile internal rhyme means that the rhyming words are found within the line, often a word in the middle of a line rhyming with the last word or sound in the line. The opening of Tennyson’s poem, “Blow, Bugle, Blow,” illustrate internal rhyme:

The splendour falls on castle walls

                 And snowy summits old in story:

The long light shakes across the lakes

And the wild cataract leaps in glory.

Through the example of “story” and “glory,” that using internal rhyme does not in any way prevent a poet from using end rhyme as well.



We label the first sound “a,” the next “b,” then “c,” “d,” etc to describe the pattern of rhyme in a poem or stanza. We use the same letter originally use to label the sound that reappears. The following poem from the lines of first Arnold excerpt would be labelled:

But once, years after, in the country lanes,                      a

Two scholars, whom at college erst he knew,                     b

Met him, and of his way of life inquired.                      c

     Whereat he answered that the Gipsy crew,                      b

His mates, had arts to rule as they desired                     c

              The workings of mens brains;                      a

We would then name the entire stanza in this way, and summarize the rhyme of the stanza by saying that the pattern of rhyme is abcbca, etc. This is known as the stanza’s rhyme-scheme. Simply, we can say the rhyme-scheme is the pattern of rhyme.


Initial-rhyme, usually referred to as alliteration. Here the same sound starts several words. Consider the following lines from Swinburn’s “Chorus from ‘Atlanta’ “:

For winter’s rains and ruins are over,                 repetition of the “r” sound

And all the season of snow and sins;               repetition of the “s” sound

The day dividing lover and lover,                repetition of both the “d” and the “l” sound

The light that loses, the night that wins.                 repetition of the “l” sound

Alliteration is the repetition of the same sound at frequent intervals. Another example is from the first and second line of first stanza in The Ancient Mariner poem.

The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,

The furrow followed free.

The repeated ‘b’s and ‘f’s here make the lines run quickly and give the impression of a ship travelling at high speed.


Assonance is the use of identical vowel sounds surrounded by different kinds of consonant sound in words in close proximity each other.

E.g: “bird” and “thirst”

The ‘er’ sound is identical in both words while at the same time enclosed by different consonant sounds.

Consonance is the reverse of assonance. Thus in consonance, consonant sounds are the same but there are different vowel sounds. For example, the words “wood” and “weed” have identical consonant sounds but different vowel sounds and thus they are consonant.


Onomatopoeia is the technique of using a word whose sound suggest its meaning. Onomatopoeia occurs in words which imitate sounds and thus suggest the object described. Words like cuckoo, crackle,  hum, buzz, swish, crash, jangle, etc are often cite as example, but some onomatopoeia is less obvious for example ‘shiver’ or ‘quake’. The following are some example of onomatopeia in a poem.

            Gr-r-r—there go, my heart’s abhorrence! (from the first line of Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister poem by Robert Browning)

            Ding-dong, bell. (from the ninth line of Full Fathom Five poem by William Shakespeare)



Stanzas are the major divisions made in a poem in a regular or consistent way. In shor, a stanza is a group of lines and therefore a recognizable unit in a poem, ordinarily, each stanza follows a particular rhyme scheme. Some of the  more common stanzas are couplet, triplet, quatrain, sestet, rhyme royal, octave, sonnet, spenserian stanza, and ottava rima.


A couplet is a stanza composed of only two lines which usually rhyme. In other words, a couplet is one line couplet to another. An heroic couplet, is a stanza composed of two rhyming lines of iambic pentameter; in the following lines, Dryden describes a contemporary by using two heroic couplets:

A man so varioues, that he seem’d to be

Not one, but all mankind’s epitome:

Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong;

Was everything by stars, and nothing long.



A triplet is a stanza composed of three lines, usually with one repeated rhyme, or a rhyme scheme of aaa. The following triplet is by Herrick:

Whenas in silks my Julia goes

Then, then (methinks) how sweetly flows

That liquefaction of her clothes.


A quatrain is a stanza composed of four lines, either rhyming or not rhyming. As with the heroic couplet, the quatrain is written in alternating rhymes of iambic pentameter. In heneral, a qutrain is any four-line stanza, as the following one by Marvell:

My love is of a birth as rare

As ‘tis for object strange and high:

It was begotten by despair

Upon impossibility.


A sestet is a stanza composed of si lines. A sestet is usually the second part of a sonnet. As all sonnets have foutrteen lines, they are often divided into an octave and a sestet. The most common rhyme-sheme of a sestet is abcabc, an example of a sestet can be seen in the last lines of Milton’s sonnet, “When I Consider How My Light Is Spent”:

That murmur, soon replies, God doth not need                       a

Either man’s work or his own gifts, who best                    b

Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best; his state                      c

Is kingly. Thousand at his bidding speed                       a

And post o’er land and ocean without rest:                   b

They also serve who only stand and wait                    c



A rhyme royal is a stanza composed of seven lines written in iambic pentameter and rhyming ababbcc, the following is the eample of rhyme royal stanza:

In May that moder is of monthes glade,

That fresshe flowers blewe and white and rede

Beeb quike again, that winter ded made,

And full of baume is fleting every mede,

Whan Phebusb dooth his brighte bemas sprede

Right in the White Bole, it so bitidde,

As I shal singe, on Mayes day the thridde.


An octave is a stanza composed of eight lines; an octave is the name given to the first eight lines of a sonnet, the last six being a sestet.


The sonnet is a fourteen-line poem written in iambic pentameter. The Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet is divided into an octave and a sestet; the octave rhymes abba, abba; the sestet, cde, cde, or variations thereof. The English (Shakespearian) sonnet is usually written in three quatrians and a couplet. The sonnet form is an excellent example of the close interrelationship of form and content.


A Spenserian stanza is stanza composed of nine lines, the first eight of which are written in iambic pentameter while the last or ninth line is written in iambic hexameter. The final line, in other words, has one extra foot. Although originally used only by Spenser (in his Fearie Queence), the Spenserian stanza has found  wide usage by other poets, notably Burns, and Keats. The following Spenserian stanza is from Shellev’s The Revolt of Islam:

I could not choose but gaze; a fascination
Dwelt in that moon, and sky, and clouds, which drew
My fancy thither, and expectation
Of  what I know not,  I remained: —the hue
Of the white moon, amid that heaven so blue,
Suddenly  stained whit shadow did appear;
A speck, a cloud, a shape, approaching grew,
Like a great ship in the sun’s sinking sphere
Beheld afar at sea, and swift it came anear.


Ottava rima is stanza composed of eight lines rhyming abababcc and written in iambic pentameter. Like spensrian stanza, the ottava rima is a particular, specialize stanzaic form.

  1. g. : But words are things, and small drop of ink
    Falling like dew, apon a thought, produces
    That which make thousand, perhaps million, think;
    Tis strange, the shortest letter which man uses
    instead of speech. May form a lasting link
    Of ages; to what straits old Time reduces
    Frail man, when paper-even a rag like this,
    Survives himself, his tomb, and all that’s his!
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Ditulis oleh pada Agustus 9, 2014 in Tugas Kuliah


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Point of View



What Is Point of View?

Point of view is the perspective point from which a writer narrates or tells a story, or point of view is the relationship of the narrator or storyteller to the story.

Every story is certainly told by someone that usually called a narrator. Point of view is a device for narrator to indicate the position from which an action is observed and narrated. An author of a fiction must choose a point ofview from which he will narrate his story.

According to Peck (1994:68), point of view is a technique that is used by the author to find and tell the meaning of his literary work to the readers. The author expects that the readers can accept his technique. Point of view has psychological connection to the readers, and the readers need clear perception about the point of view.

Point of view can be divided in to first-person point of view, second person point of view, third-person point of view, omniscient and limited omniscient point of view .





First-Person Point of View

First-person point of view is the use of first person as narrator of a story.

In first-person point of view, the narrator:

  • is involved in the story as a character
  • knows and can tell only what he or she thinks, sees and feels
  • may be reliable and trustworthy or an unreliable narrator

First-person point of view is marked by pronoun I, me, my, mine, we, us, and ours. The “I” has a name, but the name is rarely called, because he is telling his experience himself. The name of the “I” perhaps called in the other character. In this point of view the narrator only knows about himself.

Example of first-person point of view


At three o’clock I cried, “Print off,” and turned to go, when there crept to my chair what was left of a man. He was bent in a circle, his head was sunk between his shoulders, and he moved his feet one over the other like a bear. I could hardly see whether he walked or crawled. . . . “Can you give me a drink?” he whimpered. . . .

I went back to the office, the man followed with groans of pain, and I turned up the lamp.

“Don’t you know me?” he gasped.

from “The Man Who Would Be King” by Rudyard Kipling

Second-Person Point of View

In second-person point of view the narrator is telling the story of another character, and that character is “you.”. This point of view treats the reader as the main character in the story. Descriptions are based on what you would see if you were in that situation. This narrative voice is generally reserved for explanatory articles and how-to books, but adventurous writers will occasionally pen a short story or novel in the second person. This is not common in fiction as it involves the reader so directly and can feel too intimate.






As you walk up the hill, you realize that the atmosphere’s just too quiet. There’s no sound from the cardinal you know is almost always singing from the top of the maple tree. You think you see a shadow move high up on the slope, but when you look again it’s gone. You shudder as you feel a silent threat pass over you. You feel cold, like a cloud just passed over the sun.


Third-Person Point of View

In the third-person point of view, the narrator is an outsider to the story who reports the events of the story to the reader. The narrator refer to the characteristic either by name or by the pronouns he, she, they, her, him and them.

The name of characters, especially main characters is called continuously. So the readers are easier to know who the characters are.




When the Saclaloses arrived at the new house, it was late afternoon. They’d been driving for five hours, and they were all hot and sticky. When the car crunched to a stop, they just sat there, drowsy and disoriented.

“So here it is,” said Peter Saclalos, slapping his hands to his legs. “Our new house.”

Amy wearily peeled the stereo headset off her ears and looked around. “No point in getting excited,” she whispered to herself. They’d moved five times in the past two years. She hated moving, but complaining got her nowhere. She sighed, her face a mask of boredom.

John got out of the car first. His face was blank. He felt sick to his stomach.

“So, what do you think?” asked Mr. Saclalos. “Not bad, huh? There’s lots of space,

that’s for sure. You’ll have your own bedroom this time.”

 John just shrugged and looked away.



Third­-person point of view can be divided in to two: third-person omniscient point of view and third-person limited omniscient point of view.



Third-Person Omniscient Point of View

In the third-person omniscient point of view, the narrator is all-knowing. The narrator:

  • knows and can tell what any character is thinking and feeling
  • tells thought and fellings of more than one character
  • plays no part in the story
  • knows what is happening in all of the story’s settings


The frown on the bachelor’s face was deepening to a scowl. He was a hard, unsympathetic man, the aunt decided in her mind. . . .

            The smaller girl created a diversion by beginning to recite “On the Road to Mandalay.” She only knew the first line, but she put her limited knowledge to the fullest possible use. . . . It seemed to the bachelor as though someone had had a bet with her that she could repeat the line aloud two thousand times without stopping.

from “The Storyteller” by Saki



How can we tell that this excerpt is written from the third-person-limited point of view? Because the narrator knows the thoughts of all three characters.






Third-Person-Limited Point of View

In third-person-limited point of view, the narrator:

  • plays no part in the story
  • knows and can tell what a single character is thinking and feeling
  • is limited to ne character



So they parted; and the young man pursued his way until, being about to turn the corner by the meeting-house, he looked back and saw the head of Faith still peeping after him with a melancholy air, in spite of her pink ribbons.

 “Poor little Faith!” thought he, for his heart smote him. “What a wretch am I to leave her on such an errand! She talks of dreams, too.”

 from “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne


The narrator knows the thoughts of only one character.

Is it possible in a story or literary work has more than one point of view?

Answer: Yes it is. In a story might be has one point of view, it ussually called mixed point of view or multiple point of view.

Mixed point of view

A novel may use more than one point of view. The author can change the point of view from one technique to another in a story that he made. All of them depend on the author creativity, how he uses the technique to reach effectiveness of telling the story in order to give an impression to the readers. The use of this point of view in a novel maybe as the third person with technique “He” as omniscient person and “He” as observer or first person with technique “I” as main character and ”I” as a peripheral character, or maybe a mixture of first person and third person at all one.


PDF file “The Intrisic Elements of Literature”

PPT file “Point of View”

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2013 in review

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 16,000 times in 2013. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 6 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

Click here to see the complete report.

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Golongan darah manusia dibagi menjadi empat, yakni O, A, B dan AB. Berdasarkan golongan darah ini, kita dapat menilai kepribadian atau karakter seseorang. Bahkan di beberapa negara, ada orang-orang yang mempercayai golongan darah telah menentukan karir seseorang sejak ia lahir. Berikut bahasan kepribadian seseorang terkait atas golongan darahnya.

Kepribadian atau Karakter Menurut Golongan Darah Secara Umum

Berikut merupakan kerpribadian-kepribadian orang berdasar kepada golongan darah secara umumnya. Tapi hal ini tidak menentukan secara pasti kepribadian seseorang, karena setiap manusia merupakan kepribadian yang unik dan tidak dapat dinilai hanya berdasar kepada golongan darah ini. Deskripsi kepribadian berikut ini hanya dapat dijadikan referensi secara garis besar.

Kepribadian Golongan Darah O:

Orang yang memiliki golongan darah O, mempunyai karakter atau kerpibadian yang paling fleksibel dibandingkan tipe darah lain. Hal ini menyebabkan golongan darah ini dikatakan yang paling dapat bertahan dalam keadaan apapun.

Orang bertipe golongan darah ini sering tidak memiliki keinginan kuat akan suatu tujuan, hal ini disebabkan karena ketidakjelasan tujuan mereka. Jika mereka sudah memiliki peluang/keinginan akan tujuan mereka, orang dengan golongan darah O tersebut akan berusaha meraih hal tersebut dengan memberikan semua kemampuannya.

Golongan darah O dikatakan memiliki karakter yang terbuka, energik, dan sosial tetapi mereka susah untuk menerima orang yang baru mereka kenal ke lingkup pertemenan mereka. Mereka juga suka menjadi pusat perhatian dan mereka disukai karena kejujuran dan rasa percaya diri mereka.

Tipe golongan darah O ini dianggap merupakan jenis darah yang paling baik di beberapa negara, contohnya seperti Jepang. Walaupun ada yang mengatakan bahwa golongan darah O merupakan golongan darah dengan temperamen yang sensitif, suka mengikuti orang dan tidak berpendirian, mereka juga dikatakan merupakan golongan darah yang memiliki sifat kepemimpinan paling besar.

Kepribadian Golongan Darah A:

Tipe golongan darah A jika diminta untuk melakukan suatu pekerjaan, mereka akan berusaha keras untuk menyelesaikan pekerjaan tersebut dengan rapi dan baik. Orang-orang puas dengan pekerjaan mereka karena karakter tipe golongan darah A yang tenang, sabar, bertanggung jawab dan selalu merencanakan segala sesuatunya.

Orang bertipe golongan darah A ini biasanya pemalu dan tidak suka untuk berada dalam keramaian, tetapi mereka sopan dan bertanggung jawab. Hal ini disebabkan karena mereka adalah orang yang selalu serius, cukup sensitif, dan susah untuk beradaptasi akan perubahan yang cepat.

Orang dengan tipe golongan darah A adalah orang yang perfeksionis dalam pekerjaan mereka, dan juga artistik. Mereka selalu berhati-hati dalam pekerjaan mereka agar tidak terjadi kesalahan, merencanakan segala sesuatunya sebelum melakukan sesuatu.

Kepribadian Golongan Darah B:

Tipe Golongan darah B tidak suka untuk berada dalam keadaan dimana mereka harus melakukan sesuatu yang tidak mereka lakukan atau mereka tahu mereka akan kalah. Karena hal ini, mereka selalu menjadi spesialis di pekerjaan mereka, tetapi mereka kurang dapat diajak bekerja sama.

Orang bergolongan darah B dikatakan suka menyepelekan keadaan sehingga mereka selalu santai. Mereka juga tidak suka dengan peraturan yang mengikat mereka, dan mereka selalu melakukan apa yang mereka inginkan. Walaupun mereka selalu berbicara terang-terangan tanpa memikirkan orang lain, mereka disukai oleh sifat ‘blak-blakannya’ ini.

Walaupun mereka kurang mempertimbangkan perasaan orang lain, mereka adalah golongan darah yang dapat dipercaya dalam sebuah relasi.

Kepribadian Golongan Darah AB:

Orang bertipe golongan darah AB dikatakan mempunyai ruang dunia mereka sendiri dan mereka tidak menyukai jika ada yang  masuk ke dalam hal tersebut. Mereka adalah golongan darah yang paling susah diprediksi dan selalu berubah-ubah tergantung atas mood mereka.

Di sisi lain, orang bertipe golongan darah AB dikatakan sangat bertanggung jawab dan mudah dipercaya. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan karena golongan darah AB yang selalu rasional dan suka menganalisa sesuatu.

Dalam relasinya, orang dengan tipe golongan darah AB ini sangat pintar dalam mekritik seseorang secara terang-terangan, hal ini dapat menyakit tapi juga membangun seseorang. Terakadang mereka berpikir mereka lebih superior di antara yang lain, tapi mereka sangat mengangumkan dalam bernegosiasi.

Golongan darah AB, dikatakan merupakan golongan darah terburuk di Jepang karena mereka suka melakukan pekerjaan mereka dalam cara mereka sendiri dan suka untuk lari dari persoalan. Bahkan dalam kelompok kerja perusahaan, orang-orang tidak suka bekerja bersama  mereka. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan karena kepribadian mereka yang susah diprediksi, tetapi jika seseorang sudah mengenal mereka lebih baik mereka adalah orang yang sangat bertanggung jawab.



  1. Golongan Darah O – Queen Elizabeth II, Elvis Presley, Saito Hajime (Anime Samurai X)
  2. Golondan Darah A – Britney Spears, Jet Li, Haruno Sakura (Anime Naruto)
  3. Golongan Darah B – Leonardo Dicaprio, Paul McCartney, Uzumaki Naruto (Anime Naruto)
  4. Golongan Darah AB – Park Jin Young (JYP), Jackie Chan, Uchiha Sasuke (Anime Naruto)

Berikut merupakan penjabaran tipe kepribadian golongan darah berdasar pada beberapa kategori, hal ini juga didasarkan kepada komik golongan darah di samping yang berasal dari (Bahasa Korea). Mungkin Anda tertarik untuk membaca komik ini dalam bentuk Bahasa Inggris pada


Sering terlambat pada saat janjian:

  1. B (terlalu santai)
  2. O (flamboyan)
  3. AB (mudah mengganti kegiatan)
  4. A (selalu disiplin)

Yang paling banyak menjadi direktur dan pemimpin:

  1. O (berjiwa kepemimpinan dan suka memecahkan masalah)
  2. A (tekun dan teliti)
  3. B (sensitif dan cepat ambil keputusan)
  4. AB (kreatif dan berani beresiko, tetapi sulit untuk mengerti pemikirannya)

Yang tidurnya paling nyenyak dan susah dibangunkan:

  1. B (tetap nyenyak walaupun ada Bencana Alam)
  2. AB (jika sedang kepingin, tidur adalah segalanya)
  3. A (tidur minimal 8 jam, sangat disiplin)
  4. O (baru tidur kalau memang capek dan dibutuhkan)

Yang paling panjang umur:

  1. O (tidak gampang stres dan memiliki antibodi yang baik)
  2. A (hidupnya disiplin dan teratur)
  3. B (mudah cari hiburan untuk menghilangkan stres)
  4. AB (berantakan)

Yang paling disukai untuk menjadi teman:

  1. O (sportif)
  2. A (selalu on time dan teratur)
  3. AB (kreatif atau penuh dengan ide)
  4. B (sangat moody)

Penyakit yang mudah menyerang:

  1. A (Stres dan pusing)
  2. B (lemah terhadap flu dan penyakit paru-paru)
  3. O (gangguan pencernaan dan mudah sakit perut)
  4. AB (kanker dan serangan jantung)

Walaupun memang secara umum, karakter atau keripadian seseorang tidak berbeda jauh dari penjabaran yang disebutkan di atas, namun setiap orang itu unik dan kepribadian mereka tidak dapat disamakan secara persis dengan penjabaran di atas. Ini disebabkan oleh berbagai faktor yang mempengaruhi setiap orang, yakni keluarga, pertemanan, masyarakat sekitar, dan sosialnya.

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